Friday, 7 January 2011

Hiragana: Lesson 28 - ‘ふ’ [fu], ‘ぶ’ [bu] & ‘ぷ’ [pu]

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ふ, in hiragana, or フ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, each of which represents one mora. The hiragana is made in four strokes, while the katakana in one. It represents the phoneme /hu͍/, although for phonological reasons, the actual pronunciation is 'fu'

, which is why it is romanized fu in Hepburn romanization instead of hu. Written with a dakuten (ぶ, ブ), they both represent a "bu" sound, and written with handakuten (ぷ, プ) they both represent a pu sound.
The katakana フ is frequently combined with other vowels to represent sounds in foreign words. For example, the word "file" is written in Japanese as ファイル (fairu), with ファ representing a non-native sound, fa.
In the Ainu language the katakana with a handakuten プ can be written as a small ㇷ゚ to represent a final p sound. In the Sakhalin dialect, フ without a handakuten can be written as small ㇷ to represent a final h sound after an u sound (ウㇷ uh). (Wikipedia)

Pronunciation:
‘ふ’ is romanized (pronounced) ‘fu’.

Words with ‘ふ’:
‘ふ’ at the beginning:

  • 不安 / あん (fuan -> anxiety)
  • 不思議 / しぎ (fushigi -> miracle; wonder)
  • 船 / ね (fune -> ship)
  • 布団 / とん (futon -> bedding; floor bedding)
  • 冬 / ゆ (fuyu -> winter)
  • 振り返る / りかえる (furikaeru -> look back)

‘ふ’ in the middle:

  • 溢れる / あれる (afureru -> overflow)
  • 重複 / ちょうく (choufuku -> overlapping; duplication; redudancy)
  • 禍福 / かく (kafuku -> weal and woe)
  • 空腹 / くうく (kuufuku -> hunger)
  • 夜更け / よけ (yofuke -> late at night)
  • 裕福 / ゆうく (yufuku -> wealth; affluence; prosperity)

‘ふ’ at the end:

  • 祖父 / そ (sofu -> grandpa)
  • 塗布 / と (tofu -> application)
  • 養父 / よう (youfu -> step father)
  • 回付 / かい (kaifu -> circulated)
  • 毛布 / もう (moufu -> blanket)
  • 政府 / せい )seifu - goverment)

Stroke order:


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Dakuten
The character ‘ふ’ may also be combined with a dakuten, changing it into ‘ぶ’ in hiragana, and ‘bu’ in Hepburn romanization. With the dakuten added the pronunciation is changed, to ‘bu’. ふ + " (dakuten) = ぶ (look below)


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Pronunciation:
‘ぶ’ is romanized (pronounced) 'bu' as in 'bull'.

Words with ‘ぷ’:
‘ぶ’ at the beginning:

  • 武道 / どう (budou -> grape)
  • しょう (bushou -> lazy)
  • 豚 / た (buta -> pig)
  • つける (butsukeru -> hit; bump)
  • つかる (butsukaru -> collide; strike)
  • 文化 / んか (bunka -> culture)

‘ぶ’ in the middle:

  • 自分 / じん (jibun -> self; related to oneself)
  • 新聞 / しんん (shinbun -> newspaper)
  • 油 / あら (abura -> oil)
  • 歌舞伎 / かき (kabuki -> Kabuki; Japanese classical drama)
  • 危ない / あない (abunai -> dangerous)
  • 動物園 / どうつえん (doubutsuen -> zoo)

‘ぶ’ at the end:

  • 呼ぶ / よ (yobu -> call; call out)
  • 選ぶ / えら -> (erabu -> choose)
  • 株 / か (kabu -> share; stock; Ltd. )
  • 内部 / ない (naibu -> inside; internal)
  • 遊ぶ / あそ (asobu -> play)

______________Handakuten
The character ‘ふ’ may also be combined with a handakuten, changing it into ‘ぷ’ in hiragana, and ‘pu’ in Hepburn romanization. With the handakuten added the pronunciation is changed, to ‘pu’. Remember it well. ふ + " (handakuten) = ぶ (look below)


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Words with ‘ぷ’:
‘ぷ’ at the beginning:

  • ん (punpun -> pervaded)
  • ん (punpun -> intense smell)

‘ぷ’ in the middle:

  • 一分 / いっん (ippun -> a minute)
  • 感服 / かんく (kanpuki -> admiration; astonishment)
  • てんら (tenpura -> tempura)
  • 扇風機 / せんうき (senpuuki -> electric fan)
  • 殺風景 / さっけい (sappukei -> dreary; tasteless)

‘ぷ’ at the end:

  • 切符 / きっ (kippu -> ticket)
  • 還付 / かん (kanpu -> refund)
  • 順風 / じゅんう (junpu -> fair wind)
  • 産婦 / さん (sanpu -> parturient woman)
  • 分布 / ぶん bunpu -> distribution; dispersion)
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Task: You shall write ‘ふ’ 50 - 100 times in your textbook. Memorize the shape, the stroke order, the sound, the pronunciation (echo the sound of the character each time you write it down), etc.
And after you've done that, write ‘は’, ‘ひ’, and ‘ふ’ one after each repetitively (は, ひ, ふ, は, ひ, ふ, は, ひ, ふ, etc.) 50 times (100 if you have time).

Thanks to Tna again for providing the examples! :-D

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